England’s location on the western seaboard of Afro-Eurasia, the world’s largest land mass allow convergence between moist maritime air and dry continental air causing large temperature variation, atmospheric instability and different types of weather in a single day.
Western parts of England closest to the Atlantic Ocean are generally the mildest, wettest and windiest regions of the UK, and temperature ranges here are seldom extreme. Eastern areas are drier, cooler, and less windy and also experience the greatest daily and seasonal temperature variations. Northern areas are generally cooler, wetter and have slightly larger temperature ranges than southern areas.
Summer can produce large difference in temperature between the south-east of England between 10°C and 20 °C (18 – 36 °F) while areas around London could reach 30 °C (86 °F). Sub-zero temperatures and snow occur in winter. The Pennines in Northern England and the moors of South West England are the wettest parts of the country with as much as 4,577 millimetres (180.2 in) of rain annually. Parts of England are surprisingly dry; London receives just below 650 millimetres (25.6 in) per annum.
English, but with a diverse range of dialects and accents.
England comprises most of the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, in addition to a number of small islands of which the largest is the Isle of Wight. England is bordered to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. It is divided from France only by a 33 km (21 mi) sea gap, the English Channel and linked via the 50 km (31 mi) Channel Tunnel.
Much of England consists of rolling hills, but it is generally more mountainous in the north with a chain of mountains, the Pennines, dividing east and west. Other hilly areas in the north and Midlands are the Lake District, the North York Moors, and the Peak District. The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. To the south of that line, there are larger areas of flatter land, including East Anglia and the Fens, although hilly areas include the Cotswolds, the Chilterns, and the North and South Downs.
English cuisine has distinctive attributes of its own, but has adapted to the importation of ingredients and ideas from places such as North America, China, and India during the time of the British Empire and as a result of post-war immigration. Simplicity and quality are still important in traditional food.
Traditional meals have ancient origins, such as bread and cheese, roasted and stewed meats, meat and game pies, boiled vegetables and broths, and freshwater and saltwater fish. Other meals, such as fish and chips, which were once urban street food eaten from newspaper with salt and malt vinegar, and pies and sausages with mashed potatoes, onions, and gravy, are now matched in popularity by curries from the Indian subcontinent, and stir-fries based on Chinese and Thai cuisine. French cuisine and Italian cuisine are also now widely adapted.
The population of England is 53 million. Some 83% are English, the rest being from the British Isles and other countries.
The British Rail network is largely based on services originating from one of London’s rail termini operating in all directions to Greater Anglia, the East Coast, the Midlands, the north, the northwest, the south, and the southeast. Regional train services focus on the major cities, several of which have developed commuter and urban rail networks. There are rail links with Scotland and Wales and through the Channel Tunnel to Belgium and France.
Two cities in England have rapid transit systems. Most well known is the London Underground (“Tube”), the oldest and longest rapid transit system in the world. Also in London are the separate Docklands Light Railway (integrated with the Underground in many ways), and the London Overground. Outside of London, there is the Tyne and Wear Metro, focused on Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead and Sunderland.
Tram and light rail systems include: Docklands Light Railway in east London, Manchester Metrolink in Greater Manchester, Sheffield Supertram in Sheffield, Midland Metro in the West Midlands, Tramlink in Croydon and NET in Nottingham. There are motorways criss-crossing England, regional and local roads.
Apart from London, there are several ports in England in the Humber, East Anglia, Kent and South Coast, the Northwest and the Bristol Channel. England also has rivers and waterways suitable for barges, houseboats and smaller vessels.
The GDP is 2,68 trillion US dollars. England is the largest economy of the four countries of the United Kingdom. It is a highly industrialised country and important producer of textiles and chemical products. Although automobiles, locomotives, and aircraft are among England’s other important industrial products, a significant proportion of the country’s income comes from the City of London. Since the 1990s, the financial services sector has played an increasingly significant role in the English economy and the City of London is one of the world’s largest financial centres. Banks, insurance companies, commodity and futures exchanges are heavily concentrated in the City. The British pound sterling is the official currency of England and the central bank of the United Kingdom, the Bank of England, is located in London.
The service sector of the economy as a whole is now the largest in England, with manufacturing and primary industries in decline. The only major secondary industry that is growing is the construction industry, fuelled by economic growth provided mainly by the growing services, administrative and financial sector.
London Heathrow handles 73 million passengers per year followed by London Gatwick with 34 million. Manchester handles almost 19 million and London Stansted 17 million passengers per year. The next busiest are London Luton and Birmingham.
Sport plays a prominent role in English life. Popular team sports in England are association football, cricket, rugby union and rugby league. Major individual sports include badminton, athletics, tennis, golf, cycling, motorsport and horseracing. A number of modern sports were codified in England during the nineteenth century, among them cricket, rugby union, rugby league, football, tennis and badminton. The game of baseball was first described in 18th century England. Motor sport, motorcycling and cycling have become popular and huge spectator sports.
England has several academies and facilities for elite sports. It successfully hosted the 2012 Summer Olympics. Winter sports are popular. Although it differs from sport to sport, English sport often has fierce rivalries with Scottish and particularly Australian sport, which spans the whole sporting spectrum.